Fluency is established when—through carefully constructed experiences—students become fluent in the foundations of mathematics through varied and frequent practice with developmentally appropriate and increasingly complex tasks.

Fluency demands more of students than memorizing–students need to understand why they are doing what they are doing and know when to use different methods. As well as fluency of facts and procedures, students should be able to move confidently between contexts and representations, recognize relationships and make connections in mathematics.

Fluency is exhibited through efficiency, accuracy, and flexibility.



Cathy Fosnot explains how students develop fluency and why it is important

A discussion around fluency from leading math educators and researchers

Jo Boaler on number sense